Maintaining normal blood glucose levels during pregnancy is necessary for the safety of baby and mother

High concentration of glucose in blood may cause diabetes. Insulin is the hormone that controls the amount of glucose in the blood at certain normal levels. But when it fails to keep levels in control it leads to high glucose levels and diabetes. When there is insufficient insulin or inability of insulin to respond to the glucose levels it may lead to Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Another type of diabetes is gestational diabetes that affects women during the pregnancy. It is often temporary and caused due to certain changes in the hormonal balance during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes may disappear after delivery. However, a woman suffering from gestational diabetes should ensure that she keeps normal blood glucose levels during pregnancy. Similarly a woman suffering from diabetes and pregnant should ensure that normal levels are maintained for the safety and health of self and child.

What is gestational diabetes?
Insulin is produced by the pancreas to keep the glucose levels in blood under control. During the pregnancy period, a woman’s body has plenty of insulin. But then what causes the levels to go beyond the normal blood glucose levels. The reason for this is that insulin gets partially blocked by a variety of other hormones causing a condition called as insulin resistance. The body produces several other hormones such as estrogen, cortisol and human placental lactogen which may have a blocking effect on insulin. So the body produces insulin in larger quantities and yet fails to be overcome their effect. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after delivery. In the second trimester as placenta grows the probability of gestational diabetes is more. It affects about 1 percent to 3 percent of all pregnant women.

Normal blood glucose levels during pregnancy
The target normal levels that are safe for you would be explained by your doctor depending upon your overall health and other conditions. Often in the first trimester the glucose levels may be a little higher. Typically normal levels during pregnancy that doctors expect are 60mg/dL to 90mg/dL before eating, less than 120mg/dL one hour after eating and the same after two hours after eating. Anything lower or higher requires immediate attention.

The most widely prescribed test is the oral glucose tolerance test. It is a series of blood glucose measurements to study the response of the body after you have taken a sugary liquid. It is considered most reliable in this period.

How would glucose levels affect the baby?
The effect on a woman with high blood sugar levels consistently during pregnancy is macrosomia. The size of the baby is considerably larger than normal size. This is because the fetus produces all insulin it needs to use the glucose that maternal blood provides. This causes large fat deposits leading to excessively large size of baby. There also exists the risk of hypoglycemia. After delivery the baby may continue to have high insulin level. However, it would not have the high level of sugar from its mother. This would cause lowering of blood sugar levels in newborns. The baby may be given glucose intravenously to bring it back to normal.

To maintain normal glucose levels during pregnancy women should undertake specific treatment that includes special diet, exercises, insulin injections and daily monitoring of glucose. It is of utmost importance for the safety and wellbeing of mother and the baby.

Know what should be the normal blood glucose levels and attempt to stay within that range.

The fluctuation in blood glucose levels from very high to low may causes severe damage to the body system. The increase in the sugar levels may be the result of various factors and if left untreated may lead to complications. However, if you are aware of what should be the normal blood glucose levels you can ensure appropriate diet, exercises and medication to prevent future complications. There is a subtle difference in the normal blood glucose levels in diabetics and non diabetics. For diabetics it may be a little higher as it has often been seen that the safe levels may be affected by health conditions, state of diabetes, use of the diabetes medicines, insulin, diet and exercises. When the levels go low it may lead to hypoglycemia, thus the safe levels are relevant.

Normal blood glucose levels

The normal range of blood glucose accepted by all is around 80mg/dL before meals. Generally the levels increase after 1 to 2 hours after meals. The normal range should be less than 160mg/dL or 8.8mmol/L. These figures are for blood samples taken from veins also called as whole-blood sample. Sample drawn from the fingertips is called plasma blood sample and the readings for it should preferably be 70mg/dL to 130mg/dL or 7.2mmol/L before meals and less than 180mg/dL or 10mmol/L, 1 to 2 hours after meals.


You need to be aware of the normal blood glucose levels that are result of the glycated hemoglobin or A1C (HbA1c) test. It is a measure of percentage of glucose stuck to hemoglobin. This enables you to find how well you have been able to control diabetes. The normal level for adults should be 7%. In children less than 6 years of age it is recommended between 7.5% and 8.5%. In children aged 6 to 12 years the level should be at 8%. For teens aged 13 to 19 years it should be less than 7.5%. A low level around the given ranges means you have been able to control glucose levels.

During pregnancy the doctor may advice certain levels. It should preferably be 70mg/dL to 100mg/dL before meals using a whole blood sample and 80mg/dL to 110mg/dL using a plasma blood sample. Two hours after the meal it is recommended to be less than 140 using a whole blood sample and 155mg/dL using a plasma blood sample. All these figures quoted are as recommended by ADA.

Dietary Pattern and Exercises to maintain normal blood glucose levels

Blood glucose levels are affected not just by what you eat but also because of exercises or the lack of it, medication and quality of food intake. It is very important for all to have healthy diet. Those with higher levels should include a balanced diet with lesser carbohydrates and sweet foods. Fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grain breads are of great help. A reduction in carbonated sodas is advisable. Physical exercises like brisk walking, swimming or any other sport that you like helps as it consumes the glucose in the form of energy. Learn time management so that you are not stressed out which may cause the shooting up of glucose levels in your blood.

Ensure that you seek advice from your doctor on the normal blood glucose levels whether you are diabetic or not. Similarly take appropriate medication as well as have a healthy diet and exercise regularly to keep it within the acceptable range.

Normal blood glucose level chart handy a guide to monitor glucose levels

Diabetes management involves regular monitoring of blood glucose levels. If you are suffering from hyperglycemia or diabetes you should check if your glucose levels are in the normal acceptable or safe range. Prepare a normal blood glucose level chart which can prove to be really handy to compare the levels every time you test the glucose levels. By maintaining a chart on paper or in a worksheet will enable you to analyze the effect of medication, diet and exercises and the effectiveness of your control plan.

Normal blood glucose level chart

The American Diabetes Association has provided some guidelines for normal and abnormal glucose levels. Your doctor may set slightly different target ranges considering your overall health. Children may have a slightly higher target ranges. Similarly adults starting on insulin may also be given a different range.

* Morning fasting glucose levels advisable for non-diabetics are between 70 to 99mg/dL. However, for diabetics the range of 90-130 for adults and 90-140 for children.
* 2 to 4 hours after meals the glucose levels for non diabetics should be in the range of 70-139mg/dL. Among diabetics it should be less than 180mg/dL.
* Before bedtime glucose level should be 140-160mg/dL among adults and higher but not more than 180mg/dL in children.
* Blood glucose level less than 70mg/dL are indicative of hypoglycemia.
* Readings of 200mg/dL or higher are pointers to diabetes.

The American Diabetes Association provides guidelines to interpret the reading of the different tests like fasting blood glucose (FBG), Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGT) etc.

The fasting glucose test:
* A normal range of 70 to 99mg/dL or 3.9 to 5.5mmol/L is necessary for non diabetics.
* Readings between 100 to 125mg/dL or 5.6 to 6.9mmol/L indicate pre-diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IGF)
* Levels of 126mg/dL i.e. 7.0mmol/L or higher may be diagnosed as Diabetes after confirmation using some more tests.

Oral glucose tolerance test
Sometimes glucose levels are higher than normal but lower than the diabetic range. An oral glucose tolerance test can be done to check levels 2 hours after consuming 75grams of glucose from a sugary drink.
* If the level is less than 140mg/dL or 7.8mmol/L after 2 hours after drinking then it indicates normal glucose tolerance.
* When readings are 140 to 200mg/dL or 7.8 to 11.1mmol/L it indicates impaired glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes. There is a higher risk of diabetes in such cases.
* Levels over 200mg/dL or 11.1mmol/L on one or more occasion would mostly be diagnosed as diabetes.

Gestational diabetes screening:

Glucose Challenge Test
The glucose challenge test helps find if you are suffering from gestational diabetes.1 hour after drinking 50grams of glucose if the level is less than 140mg/dl it indicates normal glucose tolerance and more than 140mg/dL means levels are abnormally elevated and the woman needs to take an Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy
Levels below 95mg/dL or 5.3mmol/L or lower after fasting i.e. before glucose load are normal levels. One hour after glucose load normal level means less than 180mg/dL or 10mmol/L. The normal level after two hours should be 155mg/dL or lower and after 3 hours it should be 140mg/dL or 7.8mmol/L or lower.

The ranges mentioned here are according to the guidelines provided by ADA as preferable normal levels and are intended for general purpose. The levels advised by the doctor may vary to a certain extent depending on your medical needs.

Non invasive blood glucose meters make continuous monitoring simpler

Diabetes a chronic disease is affecting millions of people around the world. The effect of diabetes, high blood glucose and low blood glucose levels are adverse and can affect your health severely if left untreated. Glucose level maintenance can be possible with proper care and attention to diet, exercises and medication. You can find the glucose levels by taking regular glucose tests at the labs or by using self monitoring devices like glucometers. Self monitoring with the blood glucose meter enables you to undertake glucose level tests regularly as per the need. The meters are extremely handy and simple to use which makes it possible for you to test glucose levels anytime whether you are at home, office, school, traveling etc. Manufacturers like Abbott, Accu-chek, Meditronic have introduced several types of finger stick meters that require a little prick on the finger tip for a small drop of blood for the test. Fingertips may experience itchiness or discomfort when the prick is repeated for a long time. Thus companies are trying to develop non invasive blood glucose meter that can make continuous monitoring even simpler.

Non invasive blood glucose meters

Studies and research is being undertaken to develop noninvasive devices that enable continuous monitoring. Research is underway for noninvasive and minimally invasive methods for measuring blood glucose, such as using infrared or near-infrared light, electric currents and ultrasound. One of the noninvasive glucose meters approved by the FDA is the Cygnus GlucoWatch G2 Biographer. It is designed to be worn on the wrist, and draws out body fluid for testing using electric fields. However, it does not replace conventional blood glucose meters in any way. A limitation of the GlucoWatch system is that it is unable to cope with perspiration at the measurement site. It requires that sweat must be allowed to dry before the measurement is done. This and other limitations have caused early demise of the product from the market.

The attempts to use noninvasive blood glucose measurement by spectroscopic measurement methods have not been successful due to fact that the devices measure tissue sugar, and not the blood sugar. At the moment there are two continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) available. One is the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer and the other is Medtronic’s Minimed Paradigm RTS. The Minimed comes under the minimally invasive type, as it requires a small plastic catheter to be inserted just under the skin. Small amounts of liquid is collected which is passed through a “biosensor” to measure the amount of glucose present. The probe is attached to a small transmitter which sends interstitial glucose levels every five minutes to a small pager sized receiver. Minimed is not suitable for continuous day to day monitoring. It helps to discover trends in glucose levels during the day. The readings are collected after measurements over a 72-hour period. The data has to be then downloaded for study. It can prove to be an indicator to understand the trends to know the best time to do standard fingerstick tests. A prescription to buy MiniMed is required.

Another one is the DexCom STS System which is a hypodermic probe with a small transmitter. The receiver, the size of a cell phone can operate up to five feet from the transmitter. It can monitor and log levels at five-minute intervals for up to 72 hours. You can even set alarm for the high and low glucose levels.

The noninvasive blood glucose meters cannot replace the standard glucose testing. Over a period of time improvement in technology would make it a good device.

Noninvasive blood glucose meter option to avoid finger sticks

The number of people suffering from diabetes has gone into millions. Diabetes requires proper care and attention to diet, exercises and medication. Self monitoring has enabled people to undertake glucose level tests regularly as per the need. The blood glucose meters or glucometer that are available are highly handy and easy to use making it possible for you to test the levels irrespective of where you are home, office, school, play ground, traveling etc. The ones that are more popular are the finger stick ones that require a little prick on the finger tip for a small drop of blood for the test. However, these may cause some discomfort when done for a long time. There are studies being undertaken to develop non invasive blood glucose meter that can make continuous monitoring even simpler.

Non invasive blood glucose meter

Development of noninvasive devices may enable continuous monitoring. Research is being done on noninvasive methods for measuring blood glucose, technologies such as using infrared or near-infrared light, electric currents and ultrasound are being tried and tested in several labs of manufacturers. There is one noninvasive glucose meter approved by the FDA: The GlucoWatch G2 Biographer. It is to be worn on the wrist, and uses electric fields to draw out body fluid for testing. However it is no replacement for conventional blood glucose monitors. A limitation of the GlucoWatch system is its inability to cope with perspiration at the measurement site. Before measurement sweat must be allowed to dry. Due to limitations, the product is no longer on the market.

The market introduction of noninvasive blood glucose measurement systems by spectroscopic measurement methods has failed so far because at present the devices measure tissue sugar and not blood sugar. At the moment 2 continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) are available. One is the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer and the other is Medtronic’s Minimed Paradigm RTS. The Minimed is of the minimally invasive type and consists of a small plastic catheter inserted just under the skin. It collects very small amounts of liquid which is passed through a “biosensor” to measure the amount of glucose present. The sub-cutaneous probe is attached to a small transmitter which every 5 minutes sends interstitial glucose levels to a small pager sized receiver. Minimed is not for continuous day to day monitoring. It is used occasionally to discover trends in glucose levels during the day. The readings are not for individual tests and collects measurements over a 72-hour period. The data has to be then downloaded by the patient or healthcare provider. It might help patients to understand the trends to know the best time to do standard fingerstick tests. A prescription to buy MiniMed is required.

There is one more noninvasive meter called as the DexCom STS System which is a hypodermic probe with a small transmitter. The receiver which is about the size of a cell phone can operate up to five feet from the transmitter. It monitors and logs levels at five-minute intervals for up to 72 hours. There are high and low glucose alarms which can be set.

The noninvasive blood glucose meter is not a replacement to the standard glucose testing which is the most reliable system as yet. With improvement these may also become good devices over time.

The new Accu-chek blood glucose meter – Compact Plus high quality all in one testing meter

Diabetics need to ensure great control on their blood glucose levels to remain healthy. Normally you can undertake lab tests to know your blood glucose levels. However when the situations requires that you monitor the blood glucose levels multiple times in a day you may find it better to use blood glucose meter. These meters are simple and easy to use and quiet accurate. You can check your glucose any time at home, work, school, play where and whenever the need exists. Having a regular check with these glucose levels enables you to plan your diabetes control treatment considering effects of diet, medication and physical activity. There are several manufacturers like Abbott, Accu-chek from Roche, Meditronics etc. Accu-chek monitors are highly popular and used by several diabetics around the world. They are known for their reliability and accuracy. The new Accu-chek blood glucose meter is the Accu-Chek Compact Plus Blood Glucose meter which offers all in one testing.

New Accu-Chek Compact Plus Blood Glucose meter

The new Accu-chek glucose meter is a very interesting feature with all-in-one testing which does not require you to handle individual test strips. It has been in the market from around mid 2007. It is extremely convenient for anytime, anywhere Blood Glucose testing. The new Blood Glucose meter is the new choice for Diabetes monitoring. The unique feature of the meter is the integrated 17-strip drum which means you never have to handle individual test strips. When the strip drum is empty it is displayed accordingly. The best feature is that if any test is found defective the meter warns or indicates you about the same. It is fast with just three simple handling steps and a result in 5 seconds. The overall impact is you have overall faster testing time – just test and go.

There is no need for extra coding as the meter does it automatically. A very good feature is the special under-dose detection that shows if you need to add more blood. This way you do not need to re-test or waste a test strip. It stores up to 500 results with date and time and also has alarms to remind you of test timings. There is a hypo indicator function that prompts you to check the result carefully when you have glucose levels below the normal levels indicating a possible hypo. It shows the number of test strip remaining so that you may get new on time. There is an Infra-Red data port that allows you to upload test results onto your computer for long-term storage. The detachable finger pricker is a very handy in-built feature and offers the choice of testing with just one hand. It can be used for alternative site testing also.

A very important point to remember is that it is developed for single patient use only and should not be used in a multi patient environment like in a nursing home. There are no features to guard against cross infections that may exist in the multi patient settings. The finger pricker can be used for obtaining capillary blood. You can test the levels with the meter docked or if you feel so you may undock it as well. You can use the special AST cap to get samples from alternative sites.

The new Accu-chek Compact Plus blood glucose meter is extremely useful and easy to use. There are several features that provide you with minute details. It is extremely handy and reliable with all-in-one features. It is among the best meters from the highly reliable and high quality Accu-chek glucose meter family.

Mid-ir noninvasive blood glucose meter technology of the future

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which can affect nearly every organ system in the body. There are million of people around the world suffering from diabetes. For the diabetes control on the blood glucose levels requires proper treatment, including diet and exercise, various oral medications, and/or insulin injections. Proper diabetes management can help avoid complications such as blindness, kidney failure and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The self monitoring is vital to diabetes management which is mostly done with the use of the finger-stick method. These glucometers require a little prick on the fingertip to draw a small drop of blood. However regular monitoring may cause great discomfort and irritation. There are efforts on to develop noninvasive blood glucose meters. In the recent years success has been achieved in development of mid-ir non invasive blood glucose meter.

What is the mid-ir non invasive blood glucose meter?

The finger prick causes substantial discomfort when done multiple times. Thus the noninvasive blood glucose (BG) measurements are being studied to make them useful for continuous monitoring. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has emerged as the analytical method of choice in the recent years. It is founded on the spectrum of IR colors characteristic of the analyte itself rather than on reagents and color reactions.

For the non invasive glucose test the method and instrument is based on the discovery that natural mid-IR emission from the human body, mostly from the tympanic membrane, is modulated by the state of the emitting tissue. It has been seen that Spectral emissivity of human IR radiation from the tympanic membrane consists of spectral information of the blood analyte. It can be correlated to the blood analyte concentration like the glucose concentration. The technology that is used for the glucose measurement device is also based on principle that the human body naturally emits strong electromagnetic radiation in the micrometer wavelength region.

An attempt to find a solution is being made by California-based Oculir. The painless non invasive meter monitors the blood glucose levels by inspecting the tiny blood vessels of the eye, without touching the eyeball. The monitor is about the size of a cell phone. The patients hold it up to their eyes, and it bounces a harmless beam of infrared light off the membrane (conjuctiva) that surrounds the white of the eye. Glucose has strong capacity to absorb mid-infrared (IR) radiation. The spectrum of light used is invisible and of a wavelength that can interact with glucose molecules in blood that flows through tiny vessels in the thin membrane covering the eye. The light reflected back is proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood. The more glucose in the blood the less signal is reflected back at the specific wavelength which gives the non invasive measure of blood glucose levels. What is unique about this meter is that other existing systems use near-IR radiation on the skin which is very weak and the skin is too complex. This test relies on the mid-IR region of the spectrum which has a different spectrum in this part of electromagnetic spectrum.

Efforts are being done by different companies to use this technology to achieve non prick glucose meters which can make continuous monitoring and control simpler and safer. The mid-ir noninvasive blood glucose meters are beneficial and would find extensive use in diabetes management.

Meal plan diet for type 2 diabetes, a healthy diet plan

The meal plan diet for type 2 diabetes is helpful in reducing complications of type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes need to eat balanced and healthy food, for that they should follow a meal plan. A meal plan for type 2 diabetes includes healthy food in right amounts and at fixed times.

Balanced diet is good for everyone but especially it is very important for type 2 diabetics because they have more body fats. When you eat too much it means more calories are stored by the body in the form fat cells resulting in obesity and diabetes related complications. So restricting calories and eating healthy food helps to lose your weight and also it solves the type 2 diabetes problem. But how can one choose healthy food?

There are three basic nutrients in food, carbohydrates, fats and proteins. But foods which are rich in carbohydrates affect more on blood glucose levels. The proteins and fats containing foods do not affect blood sugar levels as much as foods with carbohydrates, but excessive amount of these foods causes weight gain. In meal planning you have to consider all these things.

Meal plan diet for type 2 diabetes involves balancing food intake with the body’s insulin. This meal plan is also helpful for reducing cholesterol, blood pressure and excessive weight. As carbohydrates have the most immediate effect on the blood glucose, it is very important to control carbohydrate intake in type 2 diabetes meal plan. Carbohydrate counting is effective and simple method of meal planning. In this method you have to keep track of daily carbohydrate intake. You have to take balanced amount of carbohydrates in your meal because more carbohydrates raises blood glucose and little amount of carbohydrates results in very low blood glucose levels.

In meal plan diet for type 2 diabetes you should include fiber-rich foods. Fiber-rich foods are helpful for diabetes as well as it lowers the risks of heart diseases, obesity and hypertension. Fiber is a good source of vitamins and minerals. To increase fiber intake you have to include fiber-rich foods in your meal like brown rice, whole grain breads, crackers, cereals, bran products, cooked dried beans, peas and lots of fresh fruits and vegetables.

Fatty foods like beef, milk, baked items and cheese are not good for diabetic patient. To reduce fat you have to limit calorie intake. For that always select lean meats, low-fat dairy products, all fruits and vegetables. While preparing lean meats like poultry, fish, skinless chicken, remember that don’t fry them instead of that you can grill, broil or roast them. Nonfat yogurt, skim milk, and low-fat cheese these are all low-fat dairy products and are good for diabetes diet.

Type 2 diabetes increases risk of high blood pressure. Hence in type 2 meal plan you should be careful about sodium rich foods. You have to limit high sodium foods like ketchup, salt, canned meats, pickled foods, olives, salty snack foods, soy sauces, rice, potatoes etc. While preparing foods for diabetics use herbs and spices in food without salt.

All these tips are helpful for planning your type 2 diabetes meal plan but before following any diet plan always take the advice of your doctor.

how to give an insulin injection

If oral medications are not effective in controlling your diabetes then you have to take insulin. Generally in the case of gestational diabetes insulin is a better option than oral medication.

In diabetes main goal is keeping sugar levels in normal range. If your body produces no insulin or little insulin then glucose in the blood cannot enter your cells (to be used for energy) and the sugar level rises. When sugar level become very high, your kidneys begin to release sugar which can dehydrate you. Getting dehydrated means kidneys make less urine. To prevent dehydration you have to drink enough fluids and then you will be able to release excess sugar in your urine. All this happens because of high blood sugar.

To prevent high blood sugar and serious problems like hyperosmolar coma or diabetic ketoacidosis, you have to take insulin. Insulin is available in an injection or shot. It is given into the fatty tissues which are just under the skin. Insulin pens or insulin pumps are available in the markets which spray the medication directly into the skin.

Before giving an insulin injection you have to choose the part of your body to inject. Generally before breakfast take insulin injection on one of your arms, before lunch on one of your legs and before dinner take it on your abdomen. While taking the insulin, relax your muscles in the particular area, this will make the injection less painful.

Follow these steps for giving an insulin injection:

Wash your hands before giving the injection. Remove the lid of the insulin bottle. Remove the cap from the syringe. Push the needle through the rubber top of the bottle. Push the plunger so that air in the syringe goes into the bottle. Turn the insulin bottle in an upside position and slowly pull back the plunger of the syringe until black tip matches with the line showing your dose. Choose a proper place according to the timing of the injection and wipe the skin with an alcohol swab. Pinch the skin and hold the syringe at 90 degree angle to the skin and push the needle inside the skin. Slowly push the plunger to inject the insulin. Wait for some time and then slowly pull the needle out. Always take care while pulling the needle. Make sure that you draw it out at the same angle that you put it in. Carefully place the cap back on the needle and dispose the syringe. Put the insulin bottle back in the fridge. Do not reuse or share the syringe because diseases like hepatitis and HIV spread through the blood to blood contact.

You can learn the insulin inject technique from your diabetes doctor or healthcare provider. Always monitor your blood sugar level regularly. If you feel any symptoms of hypoglycemia consult your doctor and adjust the insulin dose. Hypoglycemia is type of diabetes which is caused due to low-sugar level.

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Meal plan copy of diabetic diet is a balanced and healthy meal plan

A meal plan copy of diabetic diet contains foods which are rich in nutrients and low in calories and fats. For diabetics there is no need to start complicated diets or eat some special food. In diabetes meal plan the only thing that you have to follow is that simply eat healthy foods in moderate amounts.

To plan a diabetic meal plan you have to choose healthiest foods but in right amounts. For selection of healthy food you can use the exchange system. This is meal plan method for diabetics. This system groups all foods into categories such as vegetables, fruits, starches, fats, milk and meats and meat substitutes.

Each food group in exchange system contains same amount of calories. One serving in a group is called as an exchange. In each food group an exchange contains same amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates and that’s why it has the same effect on blood sugar level. So foods can be exchanged within a group and with the help of exchange you can make your diabetic diet more flexible. You can add variety of foods in your meal plan.

Carbohydrate counting is also effective method for diabetic meal plan. In diabetic diet your carbohydrate intake and timing, both the things are very important. Once you fix your daily calorie needs, you can count the carbohydrates intake and keep blood sugar level in normal range. With the help of food package labels, books and websites you can easily calculate carbohydrate content in particular foods.

The diabetic meal plan should contain fiber-rich foods, healthy carbohydrates, and limited saturated and Trans fats. Fiber-rich foods are fruits, vegetables, wheat bran, whole-wheat flour, legumes like lentils, peas and beans, and nuts. Healthy carbohydrates are low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fruits and vegetables. You have to limit saturated fats and Trans fats, you should reduce the amount of margarine, cheese and butter. Instead of this you can eat low-fat foods or replace butter with low-fat yogurt, margarine with sugar-free spread etc. To reduce cholesterol levels you can eat lean meats, egg substitutes, and skim milk. Fish is good replacement of high-fat meat. But avoid fried fish, and fish with high mercury levels like swordfish, king mackerel and tilefish.

By considering all these things a copy of diabetic meal plan can be like following:

Breakfast: It should contain two slice wheat toast, one egg or one slice cheese, ½ cup skim milk, ½ cup cereals, one small banana or orange and tea or coffee.

Lunch: It should contain two slices of whole wheat bread, green salad with lettuce and celery sticks, two thin slices of cheese or lean meat, half cup skim milk, one small fruit and sugar-free soft drinks.

Dinner: It should contain one slice whole wheat bread or one baked potato, one small grilled fish or chicken, tossed salad, one teaspoon soft margarine, two tablespoon low calorie salad dressing, ½ cup peas or carrots, ½ cup fat-free yogurt, and water or coffee or tea.

Snacks: It should contain one small wheat bread, one slice cheese, three arrowroots, one teaspoon soft margarine and ½ cup 1% or 25 milk.

To plan individual diabetic meal plan always take the advice of your doctor and then follow any diet plan.