Diabetes is the one of the top most common chronic diseases. Despite the progress of medical science no cure for this disease has been found as yet. In young children the insulin dependent variety is very common. This is known as type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is far more common than Type-1 and thus a majority of diabetics suffer from this type of diabetes. People who develop Type ii diabetes are usually in the age group of 30 and above. But the division between the two types of diabetes including age is fast thinning.
Discovered in 1920 insulin has made a huge difference to the lives of millions of IDDM affected people. The onset of insulin dependant diabetes (IDDM) is far more severe than that of non insulin dependant diabetes (NIDDM). Non dependence on insulin does not imply that type ii diabetics would never require insulin to control their diabetes. Type ii diabetes was known as NIDDM previously. This was so as insulin injections were never prescribed as a part of the treatment.
A type ii diabetic patient would require insulin injections daily as his body is not able to produce natural insulin or produces it in limited quantities. In USA itself over one million people are estimated to be afflicted with IDDM.
Symptoms of type ii diabetes include frequent urination especially at night, excessive thirst, constant hunger, and fatigue. Therefore, an IDDM patient must regularly take insulin injections. With daily insulin injections and a healthy diet, most patients with IDDM can lead active and challenging personal and professional life. However, the detection of the disease in its early stages may be difficult and hence may not be diagnosed till a later stage which could cause complications.
Eating the right diet and at specified time forms an important part of the treatment of type ii IDDM. Such a person is expected to manage his meals combined with insulin doses in a manner that would prevent wild fluctuations in the blood glucose levels. The diets chosen play a vital role in controlling blood glucose levels. Diabetic people need to consume balanced diet that is low in saturated fats, sugar, and salts; whole grains, high fiber foods, fruits and vegetables are recommended. To prevent rise in blood sugar levels after meals, consumption of carbohydrates such as starchy food, breads, and sugary foods like fruits, and sweets must be evenly spread throughout the day.
Bringing weight within limits and then maintaining it must be the topmost priority of overweight diabetics. This helps in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity helps in maintaining a healthy weight. However, exercises need to be done carefully. Strenuous exercise increases the absorption of glucose by the muscles, thereby lowering the glucose in the blood. For performing exercises safely and to prevent fluctuations in blood glucose, the patient must balance insulin doses, meal timings and the exercise timings.
Consumption of alcohol need not be given up, but needs to be controlled and can be had occasionally but in moderation. However, alcohol should not be consumed on an empty stomach and should be accompanied by permitted snacks. Similarly, diabetics are better advised to quit smoking.
With proper treatment patients with IDDM can lead physically active and professionally challenging lives, they however must continue taking all precautions and not take their health for granted.