Management of diabetes insipidus is to control the intake of water with the urine output.

Management of diabetes insipidus is to control the intake of water with the urine output. Also at the same time, the underlying cause of the problem must be diagnosed and corrected.

Diabetes insipidus is caused when the kidneys have no ability to save water, which in turn leads to frequent urinations and extreme thirst. It is a condition that is not common and occurs when the kidneys are performing their normal duties of filtrating blood. The retaining of water in the kidneys is controlled by an antidiuretic hormone (ADH) commonly called vasopressin. This hormone is produced in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus and controlled by the pituitary gland which is a very small gland located at the base of the brain.

The production of ADH is regulated by the osmolality of blood circulation. Osmolality means the concentration of chemicals in the blood such as potassium, sodium and chloride. This is the fluid base for the blood and is also referred to as plasma. When this fluid base becomes very little, the pituitary gland will stimulate ADH production telling the kidneys to retain more water and to decrease the amount of urine production. This causes the concentration of chemicals and water to normalize. When the fluid content of the blood becomes too high, ADH production decrease causing the kidneys to pass increased amounts of fluid out of the body in urination. This will cause the osmolality of the plasma to normalize.

There can be several causes for this type of diabetes. It can be caused by damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus because of infection, brain surgery, tumor or cancers that have spread to the pituitary, head injury or excessive use of alcohol. This is called central diabetes insipidus because the area that controls ADH is where the problem lies. When diabetes insipidus is caused by the inability of the kidneys to respond to antidiuretic hormone or ADH, it is known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and is caused by a problem based usually with the kidneys. Central diabetes insipidus is the most common type of diabetes insipidus.

In treating diabetes insipidus, the underlying cause must be treated. Symptoms of central diabetes insipidus can be controlled with vasopressin either as a nasal spray or oral tablets.

Nephrogenic diabetes occurs because of a problem caused by something else such as blockage in the urinary tract, use of certain medications, high levels of calcium, or low levels of potassium. When the cause of this form of diabetes insipidus is identified and corrected, the disease usually clears up. Medications used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus include anti-inflammatory medication indomethacin and diuretics such as amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ).

Complications of diabetes insipidus can be caused by dehydration which causes dry skin, fever, weight loss and rapid heart beat or electrolyte imbalance which causes fatigue, irritability, headaches and muscle pains. If you develop any of the symptoms or complications that are related to diabetes insipidus, you should meet with your primary care physician as quickly as possible.

There is currently no way to prevent diabetes insipidus but the prognosis when diagnosed and treated early is good when the underlying reason for this problem is identified and corrected.

Management of diabetes insipidus is to control the intake of water with the urine output. Also at the same time, the underlying cause of the problem must be diagnosed and corrected.

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