Hypothalamic diabetes insipidus

Hypothalamic diabetes insipidus is also known as central diabetes insipidus and is the most common form of diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus is also referred to as water diabetes.

Diabetes insipidus is caused when the kidneys have no ability to save water, which in turn leads to frequent urination and extreme thirst. It is a condition that is not common and occurs when the kidneys are performing their normal duties of filtrating blood. The retaining of water in the kidneys is controlled by an antidiuretic hormone (ADH) commonly called vasopressin. This hormone is produced in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus and controlled by the pituitary gland which is a very small gland located at the base of the brain.

If diabetes insipidus is caused by damage to the hypothalamus because of infection, surgery, tumor, or head injury, it is called hypothalamic diabetes insipidus or central diabetes insipidus because the center that produces ADH to control the retaining of fluid is where the problem lies. The symptoms of hypothalamus diabetes insipidus are usually controlled with vasopressin either as a nasal spray or oral tablets. To stop this disease the problem with the hypothalamus needs to be diagnosed and managed or controlled—the infection needs to be stop, the tumor removed etc.

When diabetes insipidus is caused by the inability of the kidneys to respond to antidiuretic hormone or ADH, it is known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and is caused by a problem based usually with the kidneys. With nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the cause is usually some medication that the person is on and is commonly controlled when that medication is stopped. Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is treated with fluid intake that matches urine output and medication to lower urine output. Medications used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus include anti-inflammatory medication indomethacin and diuretics such as amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ).

Complications of all types of diabetes insipidus can be caused by dehydration which causes dry skin, fever, weight loss and rapid heart beat. Complications can also be caused by electrolyte imbalance which causes fatigue, irritability, headaches and muscle pains. If you develop any of the symptoms or complications that are related to diabetes insipidus, you should meet with your primary care physician as quickly as possible.
Prognosis for those with any type of diabetes insipidus is good when the underlying cause is treated quickly and life expectancy with diabetes insipidus is good.

Hypothalamic diabetes insipidus is also known as central diabetes insipidus and is the most common form of diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus is also referred to as water diabetes.

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